Adding the dimension of time to the science with X-rays has brought new impetus to long standing scientific questions. The ability to capture transient states of matter in snapshots as well as to follow electronic and structural dynamics on elemental time and length scales gives a fresh look at dynamic pathways in multidimensional landscapes. In particular, the coupling of different degrees of freedom and the role of low energy excitations in matter in relation to chemical dynamics and materials function are addressed. In the joint platform of the Virtual Institute "Dynamic Pathways in Multidimensional Landscapes" we intentionally cross the boundaries of physics, chemistry and materials science and focus on unifying aspects of materials function. In this effort, we also have to rethink many aspects of X-ray matter interaction as we leave the regime of single photon interactions - with implications to fundamentals and experimental approaches.